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Flow
convergence and deceleration (controlled by horizontal (k_{h}) and vertical (k_{v})
curvatures, correspondingly) result in accumulation of substances at soils
caused by slowing down or termination of overland and intrasoil transport. The
intensity of these processes and the spatial distribution of accumulated
substances can depend on the spatial distribution of the following landform
elements: ·
Elements characterised both by convergence and
by deceleration of flow  both by k_{h }< 0 and by k_{v}
< 0 (accumulation zones) ·
Elements offering both divergence and
acceleration of flow: both k_{h} > 0 and k_{v}
> 0 (dissipation zones) ·
Elements that are free of a concurrent action
of flow convergence and deceleration as well as flow divergence and acceleration;
that is, values of k_{h} and k_{v} have
different signs or are zero (transit zones) Classification
of landform elements by signs of k_{h} and k_{v} Accumulation,
transit and dissipation zones are revealed by registration of k_{h}
and k_{v} maps, or using digital models of accumulation
(K_{a}) and mean
(H) curvatures. Negative values of K_{a} correspond to
transit zones, while positive values of K_{a} correspond to both
accumulation and dissipation zones. Accumulation and dissipation zones are
distinguished using values of H. Positive values of K_{a}
with negative values of H correspond to accumulation zones, whereas
positive values of K_{a} with positive values of H
correspond to dissipation zones. For
details and examples, see:
